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Bhatkhande Notation

Shuddh Swars (Regular Notes)

Sa - s

Shuddh Re - r

Shuddh Ga - g

Shuddh Ma - m

Pa - p

Shuddh Dha - d

Shuddh Ni – n



Vikrut Swars (Variant Notes)

Komal (flat) versions of swars are denoted by an underscore. The teevra (sharp) Ma is denoted by a vertical line above M

Komal Re - R

Komal Ga - G

Teevra Ma - M

Komal Dha - D

Komal Ni - N


Saptak (Octave)

A note in the mandra saptak (lower octave) is denoted by a dot under it and that in the taar saptak (higher octave) is denoted by a dot above it.

Taar Sa - su

Mandra Komal Ni - Nl

Taar Teevra Ma - Mu






The chhand symbol under a group of notes indicates they must be sung in a single beat. These symbols are used in taans.

Ex. srgm rgmp





Meend is a smooth glide from one swar to another.

Ex. qDwMwgeR is played or sung as a smooth glide from komal Dha to komal Re while touching teevra Ma and Ga along the way. For a demonstration listen to Raag Shree.




A kan is when you add a touch of another note before singing or playing the main note. It is denoted by a superscript. Ex. In gm Ma is sung starting with a touch of Ga.





A small quick taan made up of 3-4 neighboring notes for ornamentation purposes. It is denoted by a parenthesis. Ex. (P) could indicate a quick taan such as $pdpp

The phrase depends on the raag and the artist's choice.

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